### PWC 056 › Path Sum

This post is part of a series on Mohammad Anwar’s excellent Weekly Challenge, where hackers submit solutions in Perl, Raku, or any other language, to two different challenges every week. (It’s a lot of fun, if you’re into that sort of thing.)

Task #2 this week is a simple tree traversal:

You are given a binary tree and a sum, write a script to find if the tree has a path such that adding up all the values along the path equals the given sum. Only complete paths (from root to leaf node) may be considered for a sum.

For both my Perl and Raku versions, I’m going super-lean with the implementation, using only array references. The “node,” which recursively defines an entire (sub)tree, looks like this:

• Element 0: Node’s value
• Elements 1..N: References to child nodes

Thus, the (Raku) syntax my @tree = [10, [18, , ], [8, [16, ], ]] describes a tree that looks like this:

              10
/    \
18     8
/ \    / \
5   2  16  9
/
18


If we look for a path sum of 30, there is precisely one path with that sum: 10 18 2.

It’s worth noting that, although the task is limited to binary trees, my implementation will handle m-ary trees. Forcing it to handle only binary trees would actually be slightly more difficult, and a lot less useful.

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### PWC 056 › Diff-K

This post is part of a series on Mohammad Anwar’s excellent Weekly Challenge, where hackers submit solutions in Perl, Raku, or any other language, to two different challenges every week. (It’s a lot of fun, if you’re into that sort of thing.)

Task #1 this week is to implement the Diff-K algorithm, as explained by Mohammad:

You are given an array @N of positive integers (sorted) and another non negative integer k. Write a script to find if there exists 2 indices i and j such that A[i] – A[j] = k and i != j.

This one is pretty easy. We can boil down the solution into two operations for each element ($_) of @N: • First, filter @N for elements where$k+$_ exists in @N. • For the remaining elements, return an array containing the indexes of$k+$_ and$_.

To make this easier and more efficient, we’ll create an %idx_of hash to store the index of each element in @N. This can be created in linear time, and gives us O(1) lookups for both operations, above.

I really like how easy it is to create a reverse hash like this in Raku:

my %idx_of = @N.antipairs;

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### PWC 054 › Collatz Conjecture

This post is part of a series on Mohammad Anwar’s excellent Weekly Challenge, where hackers submit solutions in Perl, Raku, or any other language, to two different challenges every week. (It’s a lot of fun, if you’re into that sort of thing.)

Task #2 this week was one of my devising:

It is thought that the following sequence will always reach 1:

$$Collatz(n) = \begin{cases} n \div 2 & n \text{ is even} \\ 3n + 1 & n \text{ is odd} \end{cases}$$

For example, if we start at 23, we get the following sequence:

23 → 70 → 35 → 106 → 53 → 160 → 80 → 40 → 20 → 10 → 5 → 16 → 8 → 4 → 2 → 1

Write a function that finds the Collatz sequence for any positive integer. Notice how the sequence itself may go far above the original starting number.

## Extra Credit

Have your script calculate the sequence length for all starting numbers up to 1000000 (1e6), and output the starting number and sequence length for the longest 20 sequences.

I’ve always liked the Collatz conjecture. It is simple enough for schoolchildren to play with, yet the math to prove the conjecture is still beyond our greatest mathematicians.

Here is how I solved this task.

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### PWC 054 › kth Permutation

This post is part of a series on Mohammad Anwar’s excellent Weekly Challenge, where hackers submit solutions in Perl, Raku, or any other language, to two different challenges every week. (It’s a lot of fun, if you’re into that sort of thing.)

Task #1 this week is as follows:

Write a script to accept two integers n (>=1) and k (>=1). It should print the kth permutation of n integers. For more information, please follow the wiki page.

For example, for n=3 and k=4, the possible permutation sequences are 123, 132, 213, 231, 312, 321. The script should print the 4th permutation sequence, 231.

This is fairly straightforward. There are a number of easy ways to generate permutations that we’ve all seen time and time again, but as I need to optimize for programmer time this week, I’m going to use Algorithm::Combinatorics for my Perl solution. However, since it’s an efficient module, it’ll also optimize for processor time!

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### PWC 053 › Vowel Strings

This post is part of a series on Mohammad Anwar’s excellent Weekly Challenge, where hackers submit solutions in Perl, Raku, or any other language, to two different challenges every week. (It’s a lot of fun, if you’re into that sort of thing.)

Task #2 this week has us construct “vowel strings,” as described by Mohammad:

Write a script to accept an integer 1 N 5 that would print all possible strings of size N formed by using only vowels (a, e, i, o, u).

The string should follow the following rules:

1. ‘a’ can only be followed by ‘e’ and ‘i’.
2. ‘e’ can only be followed by ‘i’.
3. ‘i’ can only be followed by ‘a’‘e’‘o’, and ‘u’.
4. ‘o’ can only be followed by ‘a’ and ‘u’.
5. ‘u’ can only be followed by ‘o’ and ‘e’. [Note this set is not in lexical order -RJT]

This is a task tailor made for breadth first search (BFS). If you notice, each of the “rules” is essentially an edge in a directed graph, and the nodes are the vowels, a e i o u. We can use BFS to traverse the graph from five different starting points (each vowel), and explore every path of length N, and that will give us our strings.

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### PWC 053 › Matrix Rotation

This post is part of a series on Mohammad Anwar’s excellent Weekly Challenge, where hackers submit solutions in Perl, Raku, or any other language, to two different challenges every week. (It’s a lot of fun, if you’re into that sort of thing.)

Task #1 this week is as follows:

Write a script to rotate the following matrix by given 90/180/270 degrees clockwise.

[ 1, 2, 3 ]
[ 4, 5, 6 ]
[ 7, 8, 9 ]


At first glance, I thought this was a simple matrix transpose, which is what you get when you swap the rows and columns of a matrix. The transposition (T) of the example matrix would give us:

$$\begin{pmatrix} 1 & 2 & 3 \\ 4 & 5 & 6 \\ 7 & 8 & 9 \end{pmatrix}^\text{T} = \begin{pmatrix} 1 & 4 & 7 \\ 2 & 5 & 8 \\ 3 & 6 & 9 \end{pmatrix}$$ Continue reading “PWC 053 › Matrix Rotation”

### PWC 052 › Lucky Winner

This post is part of a series on Mohammad Anwar’s excellent Weekly Challenge, where hackers submit solutions in Perl, Raku, or any other language, to two different challenges every week. (It’s a lot of fun, if you’re into that sort of thing.)

Task #2 this week can be as simple or as difficult as you make it. Mohammad’s description:

Suppose there are following coins arranged on a table in a line in random order.

£1, 50p, 1p, 10p, 5p, 20p, £2, 2p

Suppose you are playing against the computer. Player can only pick one coin at a time from either ends. Find out the lucky winner, who has the larger amounts in total?

## Analysis

The problem is quite specific, in that we are only given one possible input list, and it is set up as a human v. computer contest, with no other challenge as to how smart (or stupid) the computer is. In fact, this particular problem can be reduced to: “whomever gets the £2 piece wins,” as all the other coins add to 188p.

If you go first, picking £1 will force the opponent to pick 50p or 2p. Keep going until your opponent picks the 2p piece (or the 20p piece), then you get the £2 piece and win.

If the opponent goes first, the same thing applies. Keep stalling until they pick the 20p or 2p piece, then pick the £2 piece and win. Unless of course your opponent is using the same strategy, in which case, they’ve stalled you, and you lose.

So, this isn’t terribly interesting, but I’ll implement it in Raku anyway. Stick around for the Perl version if you yearn for a more general version, though!

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### PWC 052 › Stepping Numbers

This post is part of a series on Mohammad Anwar’s excellent Weekly Challenge, where hackers submit solutions in Perl, Raku, or any other language, to two different challenges every week. (It’s a lot of fun, if you’re into that sort of thing.)

Write a script to accept two numbers between 100 and 999. It should then print all Stepping Numbers between them.

A number is called a stepping number if the adjacent digits have a difference of 1. For example, 456 is a stepping number but 129 is not.

### Update [2020-Mar-28]

There seem to have been two interpretations to this problem. In my weekly review, I noticed there were several people in both of the following groups:

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### PWC 051 › 3Sum and Colourful Numbers

This post is part of a series on Mohammad Anwar’s excellent Weekly Challenge, where hackers submit solutions in Perl, Raku, or any other language, to two different challenges every week. (It’s a lot of fun, if you’re into that sort of thing.)

Personal note: It’s been an extremely challenging couple of weeks for me, due to a family emergency. As such I’m combining my solutions into a single, shorter blog post this week. If you also follow my review posts on the perlweeklychallenge.org site, you’ll note they are quite late as well. I’m sorry about that! Hopefully things will settle down so I can get back into my rhythm!

## Task 1 › 3Sum Problem

The 3Sum (or kSum) problem is another classic in computer science. With this, you are given a target sum ($T) and a list of integers (@L), and are asked to find all unique sets of 3 numbers in @L that sum to $T.

The brute force way is to simply have a 3-nested loop and try all combinations of integers in @L, and build a list of the sets that sum to $T. But we can eliminate the inner loop entirely if we pre-build a hash of all numbers greater than a given number: Continue reading “PWC 051 › 3Sum and Colourful Numbers” ### PWC 050 › Noble Integers This post is part of a series on Mohammad Anwar’s excellent Weekly Challenge, where hackers submit solutions in Perl, Raku, or any other language, to two different challenges every week. (It’s a lot of fun, if you’re into that sort of thing.) Task #2 this week is described as follows: You are given a list, @L, of three or more random integers between 1 and 50. A Noble Integer is an integer N in @L, such that there are exactly N integers greater than N in @L. Output any Noble Integer found in @L, or an empty list if none were found. An interesting question is whether or not there can be multiple Noble Integers in a list. For example, suppose we have list of 4 integers [2, 6, 1, 3]. Here we have 2 in the above list, known as Noble Integer, since there are exactly 2 integers in the list i.e. 3 and 6, which are greater than 2. Therefore the script would print 2. While Mohammad gave me credit for submitting this problem, I only suggested some wording changes right before it was published, so I didn’t have any sort of advantage going in. The algorithm I came up with for finding Noble Integers is fairly simple and seems obvious: simply sort the array, and then for each array index, $i, @L.end - $i is the number of elements that come after. @L.end in Raku is $#L in Perl: the last index in the array.

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